Identifying the enviromental causes of disease:
How we should decide what to believe and when to take action?
“Animal studies have a useful role to play in testing causal relationships in the reciprocal interactions among social, behavioural and genetic contributors to health and disease…
“… The essential goal of animal studies is the elucidation of the physiology involved in causal pathways. The findings can, thereby, help in indicating plausible biological mechanisms that might apply in humans. Of course, because of interspecies differences it is never safe to assume that the findings can be generalised to humans but, equally, it is quite wrong to suppose that all findings are species-specific. Rather, the need is to test for generality and specificity going across species.”