Techniques of monoclonal antibody formation
The 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Niels K. in the field of immunology.
Since the 1950s, Niels K. Jerne produced theories of the immune system that influenced a great deal of immunological research. He modeled the formation and development of our immune systems, and he described the existence of a complex network of antibody interactions which allows our bodies to coordinate responses to a whole host of infectious agents. This network of antibodies has been exploited in research into treatments for autoimmune diseases and cancers, and into the prevention of transplant rejection.
In the 1970s, Georges J.F. Kohler and Cesar Milstein invented an important technique that allowed researchers to produce large quantities of specific antibodies. They exposed rodents to an antigen to stimulate production of the desired antibodies. They then fused the antibody-producing cells with tumour cells, to produce immortal cells that could go on producing their specific antibody indefinitely. This technique has proved invaluable in research as it allows scientists to raise antibodies against any molecule they like, which they can then use to isolate and purify the molecule. Antibodies have also proved useful in the diagnosis ofdiseases.