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"There is no way that the heart-lung machine could have been devised and developed other than through studies on living creatures"

Professor Sir Norman Browse is President of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. On 2nd March 1993, he clarified his position on the use of animals in research:

"I think there is no doubt whatsoever that all forms of cardiac surgery which depend upon the heart-lung machine were developed through experiments on animals. There is no way that the heart-lung machine could have been devised and developed other than through studies on living creatures


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